This blog is dedicated to unveil some mysteries of particle physics. In particular, it challenges a dominant part of this branch of physics called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). I believe that anyone who reads the articles here will understand many difficulties in contemporary particle physics and see how elegantly a new theoretical framework solves these issues. The text describes many kinds of experimental effects which enable the reader to be acquainted with different aspects of this part of physics.
During the 1950s and 1960s three particles called Δ++, Δ- and Ω- were discovered. At first scientists thought that the properties of these particles cannot be explained by the well established quantum physics. But in the 1970s the difficulties were overcame with the introduction of a new theory, called QCD, which describes a new type of charges called “color” charges. The new theory introduced many unusual assumptions, some of which are fantastic.
The properties of the particles Δ++, Δ- and Ω- are considered, even today, as the main reason for the development of QCD (look, for example, in the history section of QCD in Wikipedia).
The particle family to which Δ++, Δ- and Ω- belong is called baryons. The proton and the neutron are also members of this family. Physicists believed that the quarks, the building blocks of baryons are the only massive particles inside baryons, and that in the case of these three baryons, quarks must be in the lowest shell (called s-Wave). Since such a shell cannot contain three identical quarks without violating a basic principle (the Pauli exclusion principle), they thought that particles like Δ++, Δ- and Ω- cannot exist, unless new physics is invented. This is the motivation for the QCD construction.
Like any physical theory, also QCD should pass successfully two kinds of tests: a theoretical test which examines its mathematical structure and an experimental test which examines its consistency with experimental data. Most parts of this blog are dedicated to the second kind of QCD evaluation.
Is QCD a successful theory?
In the mid 1970s, experiments conducted in SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) discovered that the 3 quarks carry only part of the proton mass. Physicists were baffled because they thought, as QCD asserts, that the 3 quarks are the only massive particles inside the proton. However, instead of rechecking the QCD assumptions, they provided an ad-hoc explanation for the missing mass.
In the mid 1980s an effect called the “proton spin crisis” proved beyond any doubt that the proton quarks are not in a pure s-Wave, but also in other configurations as well. Seemingly, the main assumption that led to the invention of QCD was found to be wrong. Yet, no one looked back and tried to see whether the invention of QCD was required. The proton spin crisis is still one of the unsolved problems in physics.
This blog discusses around 20 phenomena which contradict or are unexplained by QCD. The phenomena are based on confirmed experimental measurements, accepted by physicists as unexplained, but are also routinely omitted from regular courses of particle physics. You can see a list of these phenomena and several citations in the article “To continue as usual“.
Why blog? Why not using scientific journals to discuss the issues?
ALL the ideas in this blog WERE PUBLISHED in scientific journals. However, this channel for spreading scientific knowledge doesn’t best serve its purpose. I use this blog is as a complementary channel. My main purpose is to enable almost every physicist (not only particle physicists) to understand the issues. Readers of this blog who are not physicists may also gain a fair understanding of this field of physics.
Another objective of this blog is to promote the conduction of a decisive experiment for resolving the correct theory. This experiment was first suggested in 2004 but was not conducted yet.
Recommendations on how to read this blog
I suggest that you start with the article “An invitation to solve a mystery“. If you want to learn about Comay’s attitude you may also start with “An interview with Eliyahu Comay” (which is rather long, but hopefully interesting).
Then, please look in the right hand panel of every page in the blog and read the articles according to the order of their appearance.
Particle physicists may start with “the physicist corner” near the bottom of the right hand panel. They are also invited to read Comay’s article which contains a description of his model.