A Decisive Experiment

Here we suggest an experiment that will be able to contradict at least one of the Strong Interaction theories: QCD or Comay’s model.

The theories
According to QCD, baryons contain three quarks, and no other kind of massive particles. Gluons glue the quarks and make the proton stable (see fig. 1). Comay’s model assumes that baryons have a massive core and that the three observable quarks occupy an outer energy shell. Beside the three valence quarks, there are inner closed shells of quarks. The system is analogous to a multi-electron atom (see fig. 2). It is agreed that according to Field Theory, there is a probability of finding additional quark-antiquark pairs inside hadrons.

Fig. 1. A proton according QCD. Quarks attract each other via Gluons Fig. 2. A proton according to Comay’s model. Quarks are attracted to the proton core because they have opposite sign of magnetic charge (analogous to a non-ionize atom). The 4 inner u,d quarks represent a minimal inner quark closed shells.

With regard to mesons, both models agree that they are composed of a quark and antiquark and contain no other massive particles (see figs. 3,4).

Fig. 3. A pi+ according to QCD. Quark and antiquark attracted to each other via gluons Fig. 4. A pi+ according to Comay’s model. Quark attracts antiquark because they have opposite sign of magnetic charge (analogous to the positronium)

The experiment
An experiment conducted at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) during the 1970’s, where an electron beam hits a proton target, showed that the quarks and the quark-antiquark pairs carry only about one half of the proton’s mass. According to QCD, the gluons carry the other half of the proton’s mass.

If QCD is correct, then in the case of pi-meson, which consists of quark and antiquark glued by gluons, the gluons should carry a non-negligible part of the mass of the pi-meson as well.

On the other hand, in Comay’s model, there are no gluons and mesons have no core. Therefore, in the meson case, the entire mass should be found in the quark-antiquark components.

The decisive experiment would thus be similar to the 1970’s SLAC experiment, but this time an energetic electron beam collides with a pion beam. Analysis of the result of the deep inelastic collision would reveal one of the following possibilities:
• All the mass of the pi-meson can be attributed to the quark-antiquark components (QCD is refuted).
• The gluons take not much less than one half of the pi-meson mass. (Comay’s model is refuted).
• The pi-meson mass is incompatible with both of the above (both theories are refuted).

We kindly request that people who are willing and able to help with this experiment contact Ofer Comay’s email (see right panel), or write their comments and ideas inside this blog.

4 thoughts on “A Decisive Experiment

  1. well, Dr. Sternglass explains the structure of PROTONs and NEUTRONs with NO REFERENCE
    to “quarks” — which have NEVER BEEN OBSERVED IN A PHYSICS-LAB !!

    sad-ly, it seems that Dr.Comay’s “ALTERNATIVE” explanation to quark-theory has quarks + anti-
    quarks in it, which, one reckons, do not exist in the real world …

    Therefore, one needs to go back even farther, to the 1950s, [(before quark-theory was proposed)],
    to find a correct “alternative” to the quark-model …

    —–{[ NOTE: Sternglass work’d with Robert Hofstadter at STANFORD UNIVERSITY during the 1950s —
    work for which Hofstadter received a Nobel-prize in 1961 ]}—–

    Of course, one can, and should, read Dr.Sternglass’s 1997-book [BEFORE THE BIG BANG] for more details, so one does-not try to “RE-INVENT THE WHEEL” !!

    Sincere-ly, Mark Creek-water Dorazio, ApE (amateur-physics-enthusiast), Princeton, NewJersey, USA
    Here is a LINK to my BOOK, a series of ESSAYs re the work of Sternglass + Menahem Simhony:
    https://markcreekwater.wordpress.com/2014/12/08/a-new-proton-model-2/

  2. Dear Tarcisio,

    The model says that baryons are analogous to atoms having 3 valence Dirac particles and inner closed shells of Dirac particles. Presently known experiments indicate that the inner closed shells of baryons are made of u,d quarks and the smallest number of which means that the inner closed shells consist of 4 uudd quarks. By analogy to atoms, baryons must have an object that plays the role of the nucleus and balances the entire monopole charge of the system. In the terminology used here, the baryonic core consists of a particle analogous to the nucleus plus all inner closed shells.

    In atoms, it is a good approximation to regard the nucleus as an inert object and to remove it from calculations of the dynamics (remember that even in the hydrogen atom one uses the reduced mass). Unlike electrons in atoms, in hadrons most of the components’ self-energy is cancelled by the very strong interaction energy. In other words, the system is extremely relativistic. (For example, in nucleons, antiquarks are detected directly.) For this reason, it looks that approximations used for atomic systems are probably not useful for baryons.

  3. It seems that your model might be more rational, but how 4 quark u-d will form the nucleus around wich the 3 external quark rotate in a proton?
    As in the electrons the energy is incapsulated in a toroidal function, so in the proton the energy might be incapsulated within the 3-main-quarks, creating the balance of the structure.
    About the extra mass for the protons, I did not hear anything about, it should be interesting to investigate more.

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