# Strong CP Problem

As we all know, there are several important laws in Physics called “Conservation Laws”. The most famous of them are the Law of Energy Conservation and the Law of Momentum Conservation. As a matter of fact, additional conservation laws apply.

The Laws of Conservation of the Electric and Magnetic Charges
Conservation of electric charge is an inherent part of Maxwellian electrodynamics. According to Comay’s model, quarks carry a magnetic charge in analogy to the electric charge. Therefore the equations of magnetic charge systems are analogous to Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations, and should obey a magnetic charge conservation law. Quarks carry one unit of a negative magnetic charge and antiquarks have one unit of positive magnetic charge.

Magnetic charge conservation introduces a new constraint which is consistently validated by all the processes observed so far. Finding one single process infringing this law would be enough to collapse Comay’s model of hadrons.

The Baryon Number Conservation Law
Experiments show that baryon number is conserved during interactions (protons and neutrons are examples for baryons). According to Comay’s model, the reason for this conservation law is the existence of an inner core in every baryon and the number of baryons is equal to the number of cores. The core contains quarks but also an additional element carrying positive magnetic charges. This element can be destroyed only by its antiparticle which exists in antibaryons and the process is a baryon-antibaryon annihilation, which conserves the baryon number conservation law.

There are theories, called “Theories Beyond the Standard Model” that claim that some processes in nature do not conserve the baryon number. One of these processes, described in the model of Georgi and Glashaw, is called “Proton decay”, suggesting that the proton can spontaneously disintegrate into a pi-meson and a positron. Standard Model allows the existence of processes in which three baryons are transformed into three anti-leptons. Most of these theories allowing the non-conservation of the baryon number argue that the individual baryon and lepton number conservation can be violated, if the difference between them is conserved.

In spite of the great effort to find proton decay processes, these phenomena have not been detected, and so much for any other phenomena violating the baryon number conservation law, inline with Comay’s model predictions.

The issue of the proton’s decay is currently considered as one of the major open theoretical questions in physics.

Strong CP Problem
A physical process conserves parity if it occurs in an identical manner in a “mirror world”, in which right and left are inverted. (This symmetry is symbolized by the letter “P”). Maxwell’s equations imply that the Electromagnetic interactions do conserve parity. On the other hand, it has been known since the 1950s that the weak interactions do not conserve parity.

The symmetry called “Charge Conjugation” (symbolized by the letter “C”), means that two closed identical systems, differing from each other only by the sign of their charge, should have an identical behavior.

The original formulation of the QCD Theory was supposed to conserve C, P and their combination CP. But QCD belongs to a global theory, “The Standard Model”, which imposes non CP conserving hypothetical processes [1]. For this reason, a parameter called “theta” has been introduces into the QCD equations, and on the basis of various considerations its value has been evaluated to approximately 1. According to the QCD equations, if this parameter is different than 0, then parity conservation is violated in processes ruled by the Strong Interactions.

But all the experiments conducted thus far indicate that the Strong Interaction and the Electromagnetic force do conserve both parity and charge conjugation, at a precision level of at least 10 decimals. Therefore, people who adhere to the Standard Model infer that these experimental results raise a problem called in Physics “Strong CP Problem”, considered as one of the major unsolved problems in the elementary particles field.

According to Comay’s model, since the Strong Interaction is a magnetic monopole force, its equations are similar to the electric charge force equations and processes involving Strong Interactions are therefore expected to conserve both parity and charge conjugation. Comay’s model is not a part of the “Standard Model” and is therefore free from its external constraints. In fact, if the Strong Interaction was experimentally found to violate parity, as predicted by the Standard Model, then Comay’s model would have been refuted.

This website features a long list of QCD contradictions. It turns out that in addition to these contradictions, QCD has to adapt itself to the Standard Model, and is sometimes constrained to make peculiar predictions (like strong CP violation) which have no grounds in reality.

[1] I. I. Bigi and A. I. Sanda, CP violation (Cambridge, University Press, 2000). P. 269.